Human Lifespan Development EXAM 1 – study guide with answers


_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occurs throughout the entire lifespan.
Lifespan

____________ development refers to growth and change in intellectual capabilities.
Cognitive
A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)
cohort
Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______influences
age-graded
In a ______, organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments.
sensitive period
Environmental influences that shape behavior are referred to as
nurture
“Nature” refers to
traits, abilities, and capacities inherited from parents.
The predetermined unfolding of genetic information is known as
maturation
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Name the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus.
amniocentesis
Which procedure produces a visual image of the uterus, fetus, and placenta?
sonogram
Researchers believe that some __________ of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, usually in the first several months of pregnancy.
15-20%
What is the term for an environmental factor that produces birth defects?
teratogen
At what age do women who give birth begin to have greater risks for a variety of pregnancy and birth complications?
30
Marta is pregnant and consumes substantial quantities of alcohol. She runs the risk of having a baby born with
fetal alcohol syndrome.
What is the correct term for a baby that is newborn?
neonate
When the critical hormone ___________ is released in high enough concentration by the mother’s pituitary gland, the mother’s uterus begins periodic contractions.
oxytocin
An incision that is sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass is called a(n)
episiotomy




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A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns is called the ________ scale.
Apgar
What is the thick, greasy, cottage-cheese-like substance that covers the newborn and smooths the passage through the birth canal?
vernix
What is the name of the fine dark fuzz that covers a newborn and soon disappears?
lanugo
Which form of learning relies upon newborns decreasing in the response to a stimulus that occurs repeatedly?
habituation
What is the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body?
cephalocaudal
what is the principle of growth that follows a pattern that begins with the center of the body and proceeds outwards to the extremities?
proximodistal
The elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation is called
synaptic pruning
is the degree to which a developing brain  or behavior is modifiable due to experience.
plasticity
What does the American Academy of Pediatrics suggest to prevent SIDS?
back-to-sleep guidelines
What is the term for unlearned, unorganized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli?
reflexes
What is the term for the reflex in which the neonate tends to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek
rooting
Breast feeding an infant for the first 12 months of life is the preferred method by child-care experts for which of the following reasons?
all of these answers are correct
Which best sums up Piaget’s belief about how infants acquire knowledge?
action=knowledge
Piaget believed that the basic building blocks of the way children understand the world are mental structures called
schemes
What is the term that Piaget used to explain the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?
assimilation
Piaget used the term _______ to describe changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
accommodation
What is term for the lack of memory for experiences that occurred in infancy?
infantile amnesia




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What is the term that means the intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events?
social referencing
What is the term for the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual?
attachment
What is considered the hallmark of children who are securely attached to their mothers?
the mother is sensitive to the child’s needs, is aware of the child’s moods, can discriminate the infant’s signals, and is responsive, warm, and affectionate
What part of the brain is activated whenever a child enacts a particular behavior, but also whenever that child simply observes others around him/her who are carrying out the same behavior?
mirror neurons
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual are called
temperament
What is the term that Thomas and Chess used to describe babies who have negative moods, are slow to adapt to new situations, and tend to withdraw when confronted with a new situation?
difficult babies