Human Lifespan: Exam 2 – Study Guide (Questions & Answers)


What is considered the greatest risk to the health and well-being of a preschool-age child?accidents






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By the end of the preschool period, the ________ part of the brain has grown significantly because it becomes considerably thicker with individual fibers that help coordinate brain functioning between the two hemispheres.
corpus callosum

What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other?
lateralization
Which of the following researchers suggests a flexible approach to toilet training, which advocates that it be put off until the child shows signs of readiness?
Brazelton
Approximately at what age does a child show signs of preference for the use of one hand over another?
infancy
According to Piaget, which stage occurs from approximately age 2 to age 7 in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases?
preoperational
Which of the following is the best description of Piaget’s “symbolic function”?
a child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present
What is the term for the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects?
centration
Johnny is a 4-year-old who is having lunch with his mother and sister. When his mother pours the milk that is left in the carton into the children’s glasses, she finds that there is not enough to fill both glasses; so she carefully pours half of the milk in the shorter, fatter glass in front of Johnny and half into a thin, taller glass in front of Johnny’s sister. Immediately, Johnny complains that his sister got more milk than he did, and even when his mother tries to explain that they both got the same amount, Johnny insists he is right. In this example, Johnny is demonstrating a lack of development in the area of
conservation of mass
Which developmental psychologist believed that cognitive development is a result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation and working with mentors to solve problems?
Vygotsky
According to Vygotsky, if one child receives assistance he/she may improve substantially more than another child who does not receive help. The assistance or structuring provided by others is termed
scaffolding
When young children are using speech that is spoken and directed to themselves, this is called
Five-year-old Randy is in preschool, and his teacher is trying to show him how to use a pair of children’s scissors to cut paper. Randy tries to show his independence and ability to use the scissors without assistance and says to his teacher, “Let me.” Erikson may say that Randy is demonstrating what stage of development?
initiative versus guilt
Four-year-old Sheila, an African American, is asked to choose between pictures of white children and black children. According to research regarding racial dissonance, Shelia is most likely to have positive feelings toward which pictures?
pictures of white children
What is the term for the perception of oneself as male or female?
gender identity
What is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and whose word is law?
authoritarian
Five-year-old Benjamin and his younger sister were playing together in the living room, and his sister grabbed at the toy that Benjamin was playing with. He lashed out at his sister and punched her in the arm and took back the toy, making her cry. Benjamin’s mother immediately took Benjamin aside and, rather than punishing him, tried to explain how his choice of behavior made his sister cry, and that he needs to learn to share his toys. This is an example of what type of parenting style?
authoritative
While “spanking” may produce immediate compliance of children, the long-term side effects may include all of the following EXCEPT
the child will develop a greater sense of independence and autonomy, and will adhere to social and cultural norms.
According to Piaget, what is the term for the earliest, broad stage of moral thinking in which rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable?
heteronomous morality
What is the term for the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity?
emotional self-regulation
Which of the following is NOT a fine motor skill?
jumping rope
What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children 6 to 8 years old?
The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.
Approximately how many children and adolescents have a psychological disorder that produces some impairment?
1 in 5
If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting
learning disability
What is the term that refers to the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic?
concrete operational
What is the term for the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?
decentering
What is Vygotsky’s term for the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task?
zone of proximal development
When middle-school-age children become more competent with the rules governing the use of language to communicate in a given social setting, they are demonstrating knowledge of
pragmatics
What is the term for maintaining one’s original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture?
bicultural identity
Recent findings show that nationally in the U.S., twice as many African American students as Caucasian American students are classified as mildly mentally retarded, which is a difference that experts attribute to
cultural bias in testing and poverty
According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12, children go through the period characterized by a focus on efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called
industry versus inferiority
______________ is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented), whereas ______________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.
Self-esteem; self-concept
During middle childhood years, it appears that children in immigrant families
often do quite well in the United States.
Which of the following psychologists contends that people pass through a series of stages in the kind of reasoning they use to make moral judgments as their sense of justice evolves?
Kohlberg
Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?
mutual trust
According to the text, what is status?
the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group
Compared to less popular children, popular children are more likely to do all of the following EXCEPT
disregard others’ emotional experiences.
What is one of the newest forms of bullying?
internet bullying
What does the term “border work” mean?
schoolboys and girls who occasionally enter each other’s “territories” with romantic overtones
Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?
dominance hierarchy

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