Human Lifespan Exam Study Guide (Q&A)


_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occurs throughout the entire lifespan.

Research
Biological
Lifespan
Psychological






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____________ development refers to growth and change in intellectual capabilities.
Physical
Social
Cognitive
Personality
A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)
cohort
locale group
normative group
ethnic group





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Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______influences
history-graded
age-graded
ecosystem
natural
In a ______, organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments.
normative period
sensitive period
developmental period
discontinuous period
Environmental influences that shape behavior are referred to as

nurture
natural pressures
teratogens
nature
“Nature” refers to
how people’s growth and change is affected at the cellular level.
biological forces within the environment that affect change.
traits, abilities, and capacities inherited from parents.
socioeconomic surroundings that affect people’s growth and change.
The predetermined unfolding of genetic information is known as
maturation
karyotyping
genetic conception
genetic predisposition
Name the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus.
Correct!
amniocentesis
embryoscopy
sonogram
ultrasound
Which procedure produces a visual image of the uterus, fetus, and placenta?
amniocentesis
embryoscopy
sonogram
karyotyping
Researchers believe that some __________ of all pregnancies end in miscarriage, usually in the first several months of pregnancy.
5-8%
15-20%
25-50%
10-25%
What is the term for an environmental factor that produces birth defects?
teratogen
chemical influence
viral influence
ketones
At what age do women who give birth begin to have greater risks for a variety of pregnancy and birth complications?
30
25
35
40

 






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Marta is pregnant and consumes substantial quantities of alcohol. She runs the risk of having a baby born with
autoimmune deficiency.
Down syndrome.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
fetal alcohol syndrome.
What is the correct term for a baby that is newborn?
neonate
infant
embryo
fetus
When the critical hormone ___________ is released in high enough concentration by the mother’s pituitary gland, the mother’s uterus begins periodic contractions.

oxycontin
oxytocin
corticotropin
cortisol
An incision that is sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass is called a(n)
episiotomy
cervix
amniocentesis
Braxton-Hicks steam
A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns is called the ________ scale.
Bradley
Bondell
Lamaze
Apgar
What is the thick, greasy, cottage-cheese-like substance that covers the newborn and smooths the passage through the birth canal?
apgar
vernix
episosis
lanugo
What is the name of the fine dark fuzz that covers a newborn and soon disappears?
episiosis
apgar
vernix
lanugo





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Which form of learning relies upon newborns decreasing in the response to a stimulus that occurs repeatedly?

molding
operant conditioning
habituation
classical conditioning
What is the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body?
principle of indpendence of systems
proximodistal
cephalocaudal
principle of hierarchical integration
what is the principle of growth that follows a pattern that begins with the center of the body and proceeds outwards to the extremities?
principle of hierarchical integration
cephalocaudal
proximodistal
principle of independence of systems
The elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation is called
neural thinning
myelination
dendritic expulsion
synaptic pruning
_________ is the degree to which a developing brain or behavior is modifiable due to experience.
plasticity
dendritic potential
synaptic pruning
myelination
What does the American Academy of Pediatrics suggest to prevent SIDS?
autostimulation
back-to-sleep guidelines
frequent naps
no blankets in the crib
What is the term for unlearned, unorganized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli?
uncoded response set
reflexes
rhythmic response
cycles






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What is the term for the reflex in which the neonate tends to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek

Babinski
Moro
rooting
startle

long-human-life-span_14db496194e5a65a
Breast feeding an infant for the first 12 months of life is the preferred method by child-care experts for which of the following reasons?
breast milk offers some immunity to childhood diseases.
breast milk contains all the nutrients necessary for growth
breast milk is more easily digested than cow’s milk or formula.
all of these answers are correct
Which best sums up Piaget’s belief about how infants acquire knowledge?
instinct broadens into conceptual frameworks
sensation and perception=knowledge
action=knowledge
facts are communicated by others
Piaget believed that the basic building blocks of the way children understand the world are mental structures called
assimilation
concepts
accommodation
schemes
What is the term that Piaget used to explain the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?
assimilation
preoperational definitions
operational definitions
accommodation
Piaget used the term _______ to describe changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
accommodation
assimilation
operational definitions
preoperational definitions
What is term for the lack of memory for experiences that occurred in infancy?

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infantile encoding
infantile retrieval
infantile memory
infantile amnesia






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What is the term that means the intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events?

social decoding
nonverbal decoding
nonverbal referencing
social referencing
What is the term for the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual?
attachment
parent-child bond
detachment
homogamous bond
What is considered the hallmark of children who are securely attached to their mothers?
the mother responds to the child constantly to the point of being overly responsive
the mother is sensitive to the child’s needs, is aware of the child’s moods, can discriminate the infant’s signals, and is responsive, warm, and affectionate
the child has no fear of strangers and demonstrates that he/she is equally comfortable with unfamiliar adults and the mother
the child never cries and is secure enough to not demand face-to-face interactions with the mother
What part of the brain is activated whenever a child enacts a particular behavior, but also whenever that child simply observes others around him/her who are carrying out the same behavior?
cerebral cortex
neural ganglia
mirror neurons
cerebellum
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual are called
temperament
genetic predisposition
personality
inherited characteristics






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What is the term that Thomas and Chess used to describe babies who have negative moods, are slow to adapt to new situations, and tend to withdraw when confronted with a new situation?
slow to warm babies
difficult babies
low intensity babies
hard babies