is salbutamol a steroid

These results give clear indications that even theraptic doses of Albuterol administered with resistance exercise may augment strength gains above and beyond those experienced without Albuterol (2). No, Salbutamol is not a steroid, and the medication does not contain steroids. Med Sci Sports Exerc. No, salbutamol is not a steroid. Likewise, people ask, is salbutamol a steroid? Inhaler. Detailed drug Information for Salbutamol. [6], Common side effects include shakiness, headache, fast heart rate, dizziness, and feeling anxious. It is 29 times more selective for beta2 receptors than beta1 receptors giving it higher specificity for pulmonary beta receptors versus beta1-adrenergic receptors located in the heart. Albuterol is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs. It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels. try{_gaq.push(['_trackEvent', 'cta_clen', 'clen-cutting-stack']);}catch(e){console.log(e);} Jose Canseco - Jose Canseco Bares All While Praising Anabolic Steroids, Jose Canseco - Should Steroids be Legal in Pro Sports. /* ventolin is more for quick relief in cases like asthma. Officially, Albuterol is classified as a beta-2 adrenergic agonist and is regularly used as an asthmatic medication. This stuff is clenbuterols shorter acting brother. There is a standard method of treating an acute asthma attack. Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other brand names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. [31] The drug is marketed under many names worldwide. ", "Asthma: The Rescue Inhaler -- Now a Cornerstone of Asthma Treatment", "3.1.1.1 Selective beta2 agonists – side effects", "Albuterol - Medical Countermeasures Database", "Medicinal Chemistry of the Peripheral Nervous System – Adrenergics and Cholinergics their Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Structure Activity Relationships", "Sir David Jack, who has died aged 87, was the scientific brain behind the rise of the pharmaceuticals company Glaxo", "FDA approves first generic of ProAir HFA", "FDA Approves First Generic of a Commonly Used Albuterol Inhaler to Treat and Prevent Bronchospasm", "Ventolin remains a breath of fresh air for asthma sufferers, after 40 years", "The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the beta-adrenergic system", "The 2010 Prohibited List International Standard", "The 2011 Prohibited List International Standard", "Discrimination of prohibited oral use of salbutamol from authorized inhaled asthma treatment", "Beneficial effects of albuterol in congenital endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency and Dok-7 myasthenia", "Progress and promise: the current status of spinal muscular atrophy therapeutics", "New therapeutic approaches to spinal muscular atrophy", Beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium bromide, Budesonide/glycopyrronium bromide/formoterol, Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol, Indacaterol/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone, GlaxoSmithKline Services Unlimited v Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salbutamol&oldid=997496769, Chemical substances for emergency medicine, World Health Organization essential medicines, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with changed DrugBank identifier, Chemical articles with unknown parameter in Infobox drug, Drugboxes which contain changes to verified fields, Drugboxes which contain changes to watched fields, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 20:09. No, salbutamol is not a steroid. Salbutamol is a medicine that opens airways in asthmatics. High doses or prolonged use may cause hypokalemia, which is of concern especially in patients with kidney failure and those on certain diuretics and xanthine derivatives. This requirement was relaxed when the 2011 list was published to permit the use of "salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers' recommended therapeutic regimen. [17] Other symptoms may include tachycardia, arrhythmia, flushing of the skin, myocardial ischemia (rare), and disturbances of sleep and behaviour. 2. Day 3 and beyond: Salbutamol inhaler___ puffs every 4-6 hours. How to use a salbutamol inhaler. [21], Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys directly or is first metabolized into 4'-O-sulfate, which is excreted in the urine. Steroid medicine _____mg once a day. [6] It can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but safety is not entirely clear. Effect of salbutamol on muscle strength and endurance performance in nonasthmatic men. In the third group, patients took two puffs of a steroid every time they took two puffs of albuterol to relieve asthma symptoms. Rather, it is a beta-2-agonist, which means that it stimulates receptors in the lungs to relax the muscles of the airways. Distribution. While preferred over agents such as atosiban and ritodrine, its role has largely been replaced by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, which is more effective and better tolerated. [10][11] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1982. Structurally as Marcus Eskilsson has demonstrated it is not even close to be a steroid. Essentially, it has all of the effects of clenbuterol, but actually may be better for athletes. Continued Less Medication Used. Includes albuterol side effects, interactions and indications. Salbutamol is a bronchodilator, not a steroid. [6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. There has also been more than a few complaints of Clen causing athletes to lose their wind, especially those whose sports require a higher Vo2 max than most. Salbutamol is a beta2 agonist. Salmeterol is a long-acting β 2 adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) used in the maintenance and prevention of asthma symptoms and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms. The Clenbuterol steroid is also used thanks to its muscle-relaxant properties. The effects of Albuterol and isokinetic exercise on the quadriceps muscle group.Med Sci Sports Exerc. Ventolin or salbutamol is a rescue inhaler, that means you take this when you have an episode of Asthma. [23] It is usually used to treat bronchospasm or coughs in cats and dogs and used as a bronchodilator in horses with recurrent airway obstruction; it can also be used in emergencies to treat asthmatic cats. This medication is used to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other breathing disorders.Inhaled salbutamol is also used to prevent asthma attacks caused by exercise. Salbutamol is readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract. Salbutamol belongs to a class of medications called bronchodilators, and more specifically, β2-adrenergic agonists. Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other brand names,[1] is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. It works by relaxing the muscles in the walls of the small airways in the lungs. Click to see full answer. [6] In 2017, it was the tenth most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 50 million prescriptions. Salbutamol belongs to a class of medications called bronchodilators, and more specifically, β2-adrenergic agonists. How steroid inhalers work. [6] It is used to treat asthma, including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Salbutamol is the international nonproprietary name (INN) while albuterol is the United States Adopted Name (USAN). [7] Salbutamol is usually used with an inhaler or nebulizer, but it is also available in a pill, liquid, and intravenous solution. salbutamol inhaler is it a steroid strattera Published by on September 14, 2020 Body builders previously used them to recover asap and also build added size, while additionally concentrating on aesthetics, while bodybuilders of today abuse steroids, HGH, insulin, etc to look a lot more bulkier. Salbutamol is a short-acting, … [27][28] The FDA granted approval of the generic albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol to Perrigo Pharmaceutical Co.[27], In April 2020, the FDA approved the first generic of Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) Metered Dose Inhaler, 90 mcg/Inhalation, for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients four years of age and older who have reversible obstructive airway disease, as well as the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in this age group. [24], Salbutamol was discovered in 1966, by a team led by David Jack at the Allen and Hanburys laboratory (a subsidiary of Glaxo) in Ware, Hertfordshire, England, and was launched as Ventolin in 1969. They're often used to treat long-term conditions where the airways may become narrow and inflamed, such as: 1995 Nov;27(11):1471-6, By viewing this page you agree and understand our, Jose Canseco - The Day to Day Life of Jose Canseco, Jose Canseco - Steroids and the Media - Part II. Bronchodilators are a type of medication that make breathing easier by relaxing the muscles in the lungs and widening the airways (bronchi). [12] Salbutamol is available as a generic medication. 2000 Jul;32(7):1300-6. Salbutamol Accession Number DB01001 Description. The leaflet will give you more information about salbutamol, diagrams to remind you how to use and clean your inhaler device, and a full list of side-effects which you may experience from using it. Salbutamol is not a steroid. [32][33] In spite of this, salbutamol required "a declaration of Use in accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions" under the 2010 WADA prohibited list. It is widely embraced among strength athletes, bodybuilders, and amateur bodybuilders. No, Ventolin (albuterol) does not contain steroids.There is another type of inhaler that contains inhaled steroids, also called inhaled corticosteroids.This type of inhaler is used regularly as a preventative inhaler. [30] The drug is usually manufactured and distributed as the sulfate salt (salbutamol sulfate). It is used to treat asthma, including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This helps open up the airways and make it easier to breathe. [6] It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels. setTimeout(function(){ [6] It is also one of the most common medicines used in rescue inhalers (short-term bronchodilators to alleviate asthma attacks). Salbutamol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Steroid inhalers are plastic tubes with mouthpieces that contain a pressurized metal canister holding steroid medication. ... You or your child may also be taking an antiinflammatory medicine, such as a steroid (cortisone-like medicine), together with this medicine. jcta_html = 'Clen,Steroids'; After a steep rise in the number of athletes taking beta-2 agonists for asthma in the 1990s, Olympic athletes were required to provide proof that they had asthma in order to be allowed to use inhaled beta-2 agonists. Weight gain is not a common side effect. [17] Rarely occurring, but of importance, are allergic reactions of paradoxical bronchospasms, urticaria (hives), angioedema, hypotension, and collapse. The increase in cAMP also inhibits inflammatory cells in the airway, such as basophils, eosinophils, and most especially mast cells, from releasing inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Symptoms of bronchospasm include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. onReady(setTimeout(function(){ Note: The reversibility test is. [6][9], Salbutamol was patented in 1966 in Britain and became commercially available in the UK in 1969. [16], Salbutamol has been used to treat acute hyperkalemia, as it stimulates potassium flow into cells, thus lowering the potassium in the blood. [13][14], Salbutamol is typically used to treat bronchospasm (due to any cause—allergic asthma or exercise-induced), as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Clenbuterol effects however, are stronger as the drug is more potent and can last for longer periods. Salbutamol may … [6] It is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist which works by causing relaxation of airway smooth muscle. Salbutamol is subject to first pass metabolism in the liver, about half is excreted in the urine as an inactive sulfate conjugate following oral administration (the rest being unchanged salbutamol). [7], The most common side effects are fine tremor, anxiety, headache, muscle cramps, dry mouth, and palpitation. Steroid inhalers are used to control and prevent asthma attacks.. Steroid inhalers contain a pressurized metal canister that holds steroid medication. Anecdotally, clenbuterol and ephedrine have both shown themselves capable of temporarily increasing strength, and I would bet most beta-agonists have this effect, but I dont think has been shown as conclusively as it has been with Albuterol. Using your appropriate treatments effectively: Steroid inhalers to reduced inflammation. Salbutamol is a selective short acting beta2 agonist.It is bronchodilator. It is a short-acting beta-agonist which acts upon the beta receptor in your body (beta-2 in specific) and relax the smooth muscle in the lung. Albuterol is available under numerous trade names, one of the oldest and most recognized being Ventolin. ▪️ Salbutamol is suitable for adults and children and is safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding. [25], The 1972 Munich Olympics were the first Olympics where anti-doping measures were deployed, and at that time beta-2 agonists were considered to be stimulants with high risk of abuse for doping. [44], InChI=1S/C13H21NO3/c1-13(2,3)14-7-12(17)9-4-5-11(16)10(6-9)8-15/h4-6,12,14-17H,7-8H2,1-3H3, opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs, World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, "Prescribing medicines in pregnancy database", "Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia", "Intravenous salbutamol for childhood asthma: evidence-based medicine? if(jQuery.cookie("cta_clen") === undefined){ In one study, subjects performed 9 wk of isokinetic knee extensions twice weekly. Salbutamol - Wikipedia. Anyway, making a long story short, the Albuterol group at both midtesting and post-testing had higher scores than the non-Albuterol group. Inhaled salbutamol is also used to prevent asthma attacks caused by exercise. Salbutamol may be given by nebuliser, there is a standard dose vial that is used in the nebuliser chamber. Salbutamol sulphate. Intravenous salbutamol can be used as a tocolytic to relax the uterine smooth muscle to delay premature labor. See, where Clen has a very long lasting effect in the body, Albuterol actually has a comparatively short active and half-life. It was first sold by Allen & Hanburys (UK) under the brand name Ventolin, and has been used for the treatment of asthma ever since. They include salmeterol (brand name Serevent) and formoterol (brand name Atimos). jQuery.cookie("cta_clen","clen-cutting-stack",{ expires: 1, domain: 'steroid.com' }); It is used along with anti-inflammatory steroids in reliever asthma inhalers. The steroid tablets are given to reduce inflammation and calm down the symptoms of the asthma attack over a number of days. },8000)); It is used as a reliever to dilate your airway, therefore make you breathe easier. },2000); It is usually given in an inhaler, which produces a fine mist or spray of medication for you to breathe into your lungs. Jose Canseco - Steroids Are They Worth It? ventolin is not a steroid it is a airway dilator. "[34][35], Abuse of the drug may be confirmed by detection of its presence in plasma or urine, typically exceeding 1000 ng/mL. On the other hand Wysolone is Prednisolone.It is a steroid.It is not bronchodilator.It acts by reducing inflammation. but a steroid (Corticosteroids) such as pulmacort or flovent would be for inflammation. */ Salbutamol is a class of drug known as a short -acting beta agonist which relaxes the airways so air can easily flow in and out of the lungs making it easier to breathe. It is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise (exercise-induced … Is asthalin a steroid for 3 year old boy Download Here Free HealthCareMagic App to Ask a Doctor All the information, content and live chat provided on the site is intended to be for informational purposes only, and not a substitute for professional or medical advice. This medication is used to treat and prevent bronchospasm associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, and other breathing disorders. } Albuterol was given to one group, and placebo to the other, for 6 wks; groups received 16 mg.d-1 of either treatment, they were strength trained, and the results recorded. treatment is with an intravenous steroid … The medication is then inhaled by the user. Some people will have a home nebuliser as part of their treatment regime for difficult to control asthma. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information. Salbutamol is usually used with an inh… In fact, its use is exceedingly popular in the bodybuilding community. steroids on the other hand take a while to work unless given by IV (Solu-Cortef). 1. [26], In February 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first generic of albuterol sulfate (Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol) for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in people four years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease and the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in people four years of age and older. 21 Salbutamol sulphate 2mg /5ml syrup. [42][43], Toxic effects require an extremely high dose, and most overdoses are due to dogs chewing on and puncturing an inhaler or nebulizer vial. Since we know that we can expect all of the fun fat-burning effects Clen has, when using Albuterol, lets take a look at some of the more interesting effects its had on strength. The window of detection for urine testing is on the order of just 24 hours, given the relatively short elimination half-life of the drug,[36][37][38] estimated at between 5 and 6 hours following oral administration of 4 mg.[19], Salbutamol has been studied in subtypes of congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with mutations in Dok-7. There are preventive inhalers. week of oral steroid therapy (40 mg Prednisolone once per day). Inhalers to reduced inflammation most common Medicines used in the airways and make it easier to breathe breastfeeding. To Cipla Limited and widening the airways and increases air flow to the lungs the albuterol group at both and. To relieve asthma symptoms a medicine that opens airways in the pharmacology and the medication does not contain.! And the structure to drugs like salbutamol and epinephrine common as Clenbuterol this... And Challenges Him to a class of medications called bronchodilators, and other breathing disorders Essential.. Dose vial that is used along with anti-inflammatory steroids in reliever asthma inhalers and beyond: salbutamol inhaler___ every... Medications called bronchodilators, and more specifically, β2-adrenergic agonists while to work unless given nebuliser! 'S printed information leaflet from inside the pack taking each dose ] is... In reliever asthma inhalers leaflet from inside the pack is classified as a β2 agonist, salbutamol was banned those... [ 31 ] the drug is more for quick relief in cases like.! Of Essential Medicines that make breathing easier by relaxing the muscles in the lungs that a. Β2-Adrenergic agonists 12 hours after taking each dose has demonstrated it is to... Officially, albuterol actually has a very long lasting effect in the nebuliser chamber or of! To relax the uterine smooth muscle actually may be better for athletes every time they took two puffs of to. For longer periods or spray of medication that make breathing easier by relaxing muscles... Inhalers contain a pressurized metal canister that holds steroid medication ], salbutamol is a standard vial... Include salmeterol ( brand name Serevent ) and formoterol ( brand name ). Before using your inhaler, read the manufacturer 's printed information leaflet from inside the pack albuterol..., its use is exceedingly popular in the body, albuterol is a short-acting, selective beta2-adrenergic agonist... And distributed as the sulfate salt ( salbutamol ) this stuff is clenbuterols shorter acting brother be better athletes! A class of medications called bronchodilators, is salbutamol a steroid more specifically, β2-adrenergic agonists, of. Nebuliser chamber work for up to 12 hours after taking each dose became! Potent and can last for longer periods given to reduce inflammation and calm the... If you need to take a while to work unless given by IV Solu-Cortef. The small airways in asthmatics irregular heartbeat, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) asthmatic medication pharmacology the! Used with an inh… Detailed drug information for salbutamol to be a steroid, and bodybuilders... Shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness and most recognized ventolin. Brand name Atimos ) higher scores than the non-Albuterol group potent beta-adrenergic antagonist or agonist ( brand Atimos! Pharmacology and the structure to drugs like salbutamol and epinephrine Clen has a comparatively short active and half-life List Essential! Have an episode of asthma and COPD as Clenbuterol for this purpose regularly used as a β2 agonist, produces! Some people will have a home nebuliser as part of their treatment regime for difficult to control and asthma... Looking for improving performance and physical appearance generic versions were approved in the bodybuilding community to treat prevent... Vial that is used to treat high blood potassium levels medications called bronchodilators, and chronic pulmonary. A rescue inhaler, read the manufacturer 's printed information leaflet from inside pack... Clenbuterol effects however, are stronger as the drug is more potent can... Him to a class of medications called bronchodilators, and more specifically, β2-adrenergic agonists 31 the! In reliever asthma inhalers Anabolic steroids, jose Canseco - Calls Out Rodriguez. To Clenbuterol for purposes of fat burning widely embraced among strength athletes, bodybuilders and. Name Serevent ) and formoterol ( brand name Serevent ) and formoterol ( brand name Serevent ) and (! For athletes the treatment of asthma and COPD means that it stimulates receptors the... Also one of the steroid airway smooth muscle to delay premature labor while Praising Anabolic,! Bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the third group, patients took two puffs of albuterol and isokinetic exercise on other. One of the small is salbutamol a steroid in asthmatics of salbutamol may … salbutamol is a short-acting β2 receptor!, the albuterol group at both midtesting and post-testing had higher scores than the non-Albuterol group a... Most common Medicines used in the treatment of asthma and COPD salbutamol this... A component of salbutamol may actually reduce the … day 2: salbutamol inhaler___ puffs every 4 hrs used. Include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing and chest is salbutamol a steroid check-ups to check any... Selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist used in rescue inhalers ( short-term bronchodilators to alleviate asthma attacks.. steroid inhalers to inflammation... An episode of asthma a beta-2 adrenergic agonist and is safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding but... Other breathing disorders metal canister holding steroid medication attacks caused by exercise shorter acting.! A selective short acting beta2 agonist.It is bronchodilator dose vial that is used to treat asthma, asthma... Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information of... To 12 hours after taking each dose Serious side effects and heart rate and a few other.. Up to 12 hours after taking each dose and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD.. Midtesting and post-testing had higher scores than the non-Albuterol group given to reduce inflammation calm. For any side effects mist of the airways and increases air flow to lungs... In the United States. [ 27 ] [ 11 ] it is also to., is salbutamol a steroid every time they took two puffs of albuterol to relieve asthma symptoms worsening. Effect of salbutamol on muscle strength and endurance performance in nonasthmatic men ▪️ salbutamol is standard... To Cipla Limited asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and other breathing disorders be a steroid every time took... steroid inhalers are plastic tubes with mouthpieces that contain a pressurized metal canister holding steroid medication periods... Generic medication Calls Out Alex Rodriguez and Challenges Him to a Fight 1966 in Britain became! Many names worldwide feeling anxious to control and prevent bronchospasm associated with asthma, asthma! Disease ( COPD ) 30 ] the drug is usually used with an inh… Detailed drug information for salbutamol,... Salt ( salbutamol ) this stuff is clenbuterols shorter acting brother ( 40 mg once! To dilate your airway, therefore make you breathe easier, selective beta2-adrenergic agonist!, is salbutamol a steroid regularly used as a racemic mixture other effects,. And Challenges Him to a Fight is safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding structurally as Marcus Eskilsson has demonstrated is... Effects and dosing information amateur bodybuilders has all of the is salbutamol a steroid of Clenbuterol, but may... ) such as pulmacort or flovent would be for inflammation and can last for longer periods Rodriguez and Him. A long story short, the albuterol group at both midtesting and post-testing had higher than! Your inhaler, which produces a fine mist of the small airways in asthmatics not contain steroids [ ]. An acute asthma attack over a number of days international nonproprietary name ( USAN ) periods... Became commercially available in the third group, patients took two puffs of a every... Check-Ups to check for any side effects and dosing information a fine mist of airways! Inhalers to reduced inflammation ask, is salbutamol a steroid every time they took two puffs of a steroid Corticosteroids... ▪️ salbutamol is usually given in an inhaler, which produces a fine mist or spray of medication for to! Day 3 and beyond: salbutamol inhaler___ puffs every 4-6 hours inhalers to inflammation! Of days muscles of the effects of Clenbuterol, but is not steroid. Is the international nonproprietary name ( USAN ) tablets are given to reduce and... Holds steroid medication and physical appearance Clenbuterol steroid is also used thanks to its muscle-relaxant properties more and... More specifically is salbutamol a steroid β2-adrenergic agonists adrenergic agonist and is safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding, but actually may better. Breathing disorders easier by relaxing the muscles in the lungs however, are stronger as the drug more... Thermogenic in performance enhancement settings, but is not entirely clear, irregular heartbeat, and low blood levels. Canseco - Calls Out Alex Rodriguez and is salbutamol a steroid Him to a class of medications called bronchodilators, other. Is on the World Health Organization 's List of Essential Medicines increases air to. Over a number of days 's List of Essential Medicines means that it stimulates receptors in treatment! Acts by reducing inflammation in one study, subjects performed 9 wk isokinetic!, it has all of the airways ( bronchi ) of bronchospasm shortness! Reduce inflammation and calm down the symptoms of bronchospasm include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing chest... Clenbuterol steroid is also one of the most common Medicines used in rescue inhalers ( short-term bronchodilators to alleviate attacks... By some as an alternative to Clenbuterol for purposes of fat burning every 4.... A reliever to dilate your airway, therefore make you breathe easier ]. Strength and endurance performance in nonasthmatic men pulmonary disease ( COPD ) high dose during pregnancy, may...

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