Physiology Quiz 11 May 5, 2016 cashstax Education What is NOT a major function of the kidneys? regulation of acid-base balance removal of metabolic wastes hematopoiesis regulation of blood volume and blood pressure Which statement best describes the function of tubular reabsorption? Tubular reabsorption moves items from the peritubular capillary blood into the filtrate. Tubular reabsorption reclaims items from filtrate and returns them to the blood. Tubular reabsorption moves blood plasma through the filtration membrane of the glomerular capillaries. Tubular reabsorption removes toxins from the blood that was not filtered. The main force that promotes filtration in a nephron is: glomerular colloid osmotic pressure (GCOP). colloid osmotic pressure (COP). capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP). glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP). What effect does high blood pressure have on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the absence of regulatory mechanisms? GFR will not change. GFR will decrease. GFR will increase. GFR will decrease, then increase. How does the afferent arteriole vessel diameter change in order to decrease glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) and restore the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to normal? The afferent arteriole has no effect on GHP and GFR. The afferent arteriole will vasodilate. The afferent arteriole will vasoconstrict. The afferent arteriole will vasoconstrict, then vasodilate. What do the macula densa cells regulate in their role as part of the tubuloglomerular feedback loop? changes in renal clearance changes in the glomerular colloid osmotic pressure (GCOP) changes in glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) changes in blood pH What will NOT stimulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)? low glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) an increase in systemic blood pressure stimulation from the macula densa cells sympathetic nervous system stimulation CHECK THIS OUT Physiology Exam 6 A drug that inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to: increased secretion of aldosterone. increased sodium reabsorption. decreased blood pressure. increased blood volume. How does atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) contribute to a decrease in blood volume and systemic blood pressure? ANP dilates both the afferent and efferent arterioles. ANP constricts both the afferent and efferent arterioles. ANP dilates the afferent arteriole and constricts the efferent arteriole. ANP constricts the afferent arteriole and dilates the efferent arteriole. What is coupled with glucose reabsorption using a symporter in the early part of the proximal tubule? amino acids hydrogen ions sodium ions bicarbonate ions Which of the following enhances obligatory water reabsorption? presence of high levels of glucose in the filtrate presence of aldosterone in the distal tubule ATP aquaporins Where are creatinine, ammonium ions, small amounts of urea, and drugs such as penicillin typically secreted? proximal tubule distal tubule collecting duct ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) Which hormones promote facultative water reabsorption? atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and parathyroid hormone aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Dilute urine is more likely to be produced when: sodium and chloride ions are reabsorbed from the descending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle). the distal tubule is permeable to water. the collecting duct is impermeable to water. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present in the distal tubule. What does the countercurrent mechanism accomplish in the nephron loop? secretion of water and electrolytes into the filtrate constriction of the arterioles to increase blood pressure creation of a steep concentration gradient for continued water reabsorption production of very dilute urine CHECK THIS OUT Physiology Quiz 7 Each of the following is typical of urine EXCEPT: yellow color. mild odor. a pH of 3.0. translucency. Renal clearance is defined as: the amount of filtrate formed by both kidneys in one minute. the rate at which the kidneys remove a substance from the blood. the percent of blood plasma that passes through the filtration membrane. the amount of filtrate that is reabsorbed during one day. What initiates the micturition reflex? The internal urethral sphincter relaxes. Parasympathetic efferent fibers stimulate the contraction of the detrusor muscle. The external urethral sphincter relaxes. Stretch receptors in the wall of the urinary bladder signal the sacral region of the spinal cord. What process propels urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder in the ureters? osmosis segmentation peristalsis secondary active transport Items reclaimed during tubular reabsorption are moved to the interstitial fluids and then to the: collecting system. blood. renal pelvis. minor calyx.