Physiology Exam 5 May 5, 2016 cashstax Education Which of the following counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBCs? ventilation-perfusion matching the Bohr effect the chloride shift Dalton’s law How is fructose absorbed across the apical enterocyte membrane? facilitated diffusion Na+/K+ pump endocytosis Na+/glucose cotransporter Which of the following is NOT one of the four major processes of respiration? gas transport oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve pulmonary gas exchange pulmonary ventilation Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following, EXCEPT: increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). increase renin secretion. increase blood concentration of angiotensin-II (A-II). constrict both the afferent and efferent arterioles. What happens to the lungs if intrapleural pressure equals or increases above atmospheric pressure? overinflation inhalation collapse burst Fenestrated glomerular capillaries are typically impermeable to: amino acids. nitrogenous wastes. albumin. glucose. Which of the following does NOT increase surface area in the small intestine? villi rugae microvilli circular folds What is the first process to occur in the digestive system? absorption defecation ingestion peristalsis The removal of the gallbladder will affect: carbohydrate digestion. bile storage. motility of the stomach. bile production. The most important stimulus that induces changes in ventilation is: partial pressure of oxygen in pulmonary capillaries. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. partial pressure of oxygen in systemic capillaries. partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood. What flap of elastic cartilage keeps food and liquids from entering the larynx during swallowing? thyroid cartilage arytenoid cartilage epiglottis corniculate cartilage Which of the following encourages gastric emptying? high degree of stretch in the duodenum wall low pH entering the duodenum low lipid composition in chyme entering the duodenum high solute concentration in chyme entering the duodenum Which process is NOT a main function of the stomach? secretion propulsion digestion absorption What determines the direction of respiratory gas movement? temperature partial pressure gradient molecular weight of the gas molecule gas solubility in water The respiratory system does NOT function in: speech production. acid-base homeostasis. blood cell production. odor detection. If a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient’s: tidal volume. expiratory reserve volume. inspiratory reserve volume. vital capacity. Which hormone stimulates the acinar cells of the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes? glucagon insulin cholecystokinin (CCK) secretin The conversion of pepsinogen into the active form, pepsin, requires: an acidic pH. alkaline mucus. vitamin B12. intrinsic factor. In which organ is chyme mixed with pancreatic juice and bile? duodenum esophagus stomach cecum Voluntary neural control is necessary for: contraction of the internal urethral sphincter. contraction of the detrusor muscle. relaxation of the external urethral sphincter. relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter. CHECK THIS OUT Monoprice Select Mini 3D Printer Settings Tutorial Using Cura Jasmine has high blood pressure and an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). How does the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism restore normal pressure in her glomerulus? The efferent arteriole constricts. The juxtaglomerular (JG) cells decrease production of renin. The afferent arteriole vasodilates. The juxtaglomerular (JG) cells increase production of renin. Which of the following accompanies emphysema? alveoli collapse and surface area is lost decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood increase in vital capacity pulmonary compliance decreases How is most oxygen transported in the blood? as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma combined with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin bound to hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin as carbonic acid in the plasma What sweeps foreign debris from the lower respiratory passages? cilia gap junctions flagella microvilli Which of the following is NOT true about tubular reabsorption? Tubular reabsorption occurs via paracellular or transcellular routes. Tubular reabsorption may involve hormonal control. Tubular reabsorption is entirely a passive process. Tubular reabsorption moves items from the filtrate into the blood. Substances used to measure renal clearance should be: filtered, reabsorbed, and secreted. secreted but neither filtered nor reabsorbed. filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted. filtered and reabsorbed, but not secreted. Vital capacity = tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + residual volume inspiratory reserve volume + residual volume expiratory reserve volume + residual volume What is NOT a major function of the normal flora of the large intestine? produce vitamins inhibit the immune system deter the growth of harmful bacteria metabolize undigested wastes Peripheral chemoreceptors are most sensitive to: concentration of hydrogen ions in cerebrospinal fluid. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood. partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is: equal to atmospheric pressure. greater than atmospheric pressure. less than intrapleural pressure. less than atmospheric pressure. Dilute urine is more likely to be produced when: the distal tubule is permeable to water. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present in the distal tubule. sodium and chloride ions are reabsorbed from the descending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle). the collecting duct is impermeable to water. A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would: increase gastric secretion. decrease gastric secretion. decrease the motility of muscularis externa. increase the motility of muscularis externa. The reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule helps regulate: blood solute concentration of sodium ions. blood volume. blood pH. blood pressure. Since her stomach was removed, Mrs. Lopez has the most difficulty initiating digestion of: monosaccharides. proteins. lipids. oligosaccharides. The final process to occur in the alimentary canal is: defecation. absorption. secretion. segmentation. CHECK THIS OUT How To Make Home Made Ice Melt Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys to: conserve or eliminate hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. regulate blood solute concentration. regulate removal of metabolic wastes. regulate red blood cell production by the bone marrow. Gastrin increases hydrogen ion secretion by the stomach. True False Urine is transported from kidney to the urinary bladder by the: urethra. inferior vena cava. ureter. aorta. Each of the following factors affects the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange EXCEPT: surface area of the respiratory membrane. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood of the pulmonary capillaries. thickness of the respiratory membrane. diameter of an alveolus. Which statement is TRUE regarding antidiuretic hormone (ADH)? ADH causes the kidneys to produce very dilute urine. ADH increases the permeability of the late distal tubule and cortical collecting ducts to water. ADH promotes water loss and increases urine output. ADH is secreted in response to low potassium ions in the blood. The majority of carbon dioxide is transported: dissolved in plasma. as carbonic acid. as carbaminohemoglobin. as the bicarbonate ion. Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the filtrate into the cells of the proximal tubule is by: diffusion. facilitated diffusion. secondary active transport. antiport. Ben had most of his stomach removed in an attempt for drastic weight loss. He is at the greatest risk for: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). pernicious anemia. dehydration. lactose intolerance. In what order does air inhaled through the nose travel, from superior to inferior? laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, oropharynx Which enzyme catalyzes the reaction of lactose into glucose and galactose? sucrase maltase lactase lipase What chemical is necessary for the transformation of angiotensin-I (A-I) into active angiotensin-II (A-II)? angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) angiotensinogen atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) renin In the ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle), the: thin segment is not permeable to sodium ions, chloride ions, or water. thick segment is impermeable to water but permeable to sodium and chloride ions. movement of water and solutes is passive. thick segment is permeable to water but impermeable to sodium and chloride ions. What does the countercurrent mechanism accomplish in the nephron loop? creation of a steep concentration gradient for continued water reabsorption secretion of water and electrolytes into the filtrate production of very dilute urine constriction of the arterioles to increase blood pressure Rolita had the mumps as a child and experienced swelling in the parotid glands. What do these glands secrete? tears sweat saliva oil Glomerular colloid osmotic pressure (GCOP) is created by: proteins such as albumin in the blood. systemic blood pressure. filtrate in the capsular space. fluids in the blood plasma.